Further, several investigators report that SpiC is required for t

Further, several investigators report that SpiC is required for the translocation of SPI-2 effector proteins into the target cells by interacting with SsaM,

a SPI-2 encoded protein [10–12]. In addition to these reports, we have shown that SpiC contributes to Salmonella-induced activation of the signal transduction pathways in macrophages, leading to the production of mediators such as interleukin-10, prostaglandin E2, and the expression of the suppressor in cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3) that are thought to have important roles in Salmonella virulence [13–15]. Additionally, our recent study shows that SpiC is involved in the expression of FliC, a component of the flagella filaments, where FliC plays a significant role in SpiC-dependent activation of the signal transduction check details pathways Selleck Crenigacestat in macrophages

following Salmonella infection [16]. However, the mechanism of how SpiC affects the expression of FliC remains unknown. The flagellum is essential for bacterial motility. Its structure consists of a basal body, a hook, and a filament. In Salmonella, synthesis of the flagellum involves over 50 genes. The expression of these genes is organized into three hierarchies. At the top hierarchy is the class 1 flhDC operon and it is essential for transcription of all of the genes for the flagellar cascade. flhDC expression is influenced at the transcription or post-transcription level by a number of global regulatory factors. The class 2 operons contain genes encoding the hook-basal body-associated proteins, a few regulatory proteins, and a component of the flagellum-specific type III Thiazovivin cost export pathway. The class 3 operons contain genes involved in filament formation, flagella rotation and chemotaxis [17, 18]. Flagellin,

a component of the filament, is transported from the cytoplasm using the flagellum-specific type III export system in the basal body where it is polymerized with the help of the cap protein FliD [19, 20]. This results in the assembly of the long helical flagella filaments. S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expresses two antigenically distinct flagellins encoded by the fliC and fljB genes and are coordinately expressed using a phase-variation mechanism [17]. FliC also has a role Reverse transcriptase as a potent stimulator of the immune and pro-inflammatory responses [21, 22]. Several reports show that FliC activates the signal transduction pathways via Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in cultured cells (e.g. epithelial cells) leading to the induction of immune and pro-inflammatory genes [23–26]. In addition to TLR5, flagellin was recently shown to be recognized in the host cell cytosol by two different Nod (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain)-like receptors, Ipaf and Naip5 (also known as Birc1e) [27, 28]. Here, we investigate the mechanism of how SpiC regulates flagellum synthesis in S. enterica serovar Typhimurium.

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