31 ± 3.2** 28.94 ± 2.4* 33.52 ± 2.3 65.66 42.87 40.18 The values represent the mean difference of volume of paw ± SEM (n = 6) * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001 significantly different from control group On the other hand, mucosal erosion and ulceration are produced by most NSAIDs with varying degrees. Inhibition of synthesis of gastroprotective https://www.selleckchem.com/products/VX-680(MK-0457).html prostaglandins (PGE2) is clearly involved (Nezamis et al., 1967) and due to the inhibition of the constitutive isoform COX-1
(Main and Whittle, 1973; Cryer and Feldman, 1992). Thus, deficiency of PGs reduces the mucosal secretions along with hydrogen carbonate that ultimately aggravates the lethal effects of acid on the stomach lining leading to mucosal damage (Fig. 3). Fig. 3 Effect of compounds 5a, b, f, g and the reference drug (cimetidine) on gastric ulcer induced by HCl/ethanol in rats. Data expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 6). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 significantly different from control group The results of gastroprotective activity of compounds 5a, b, f, g on gastric ulcer induced by HCI/ethanol solution are shown in Table 3. Oral administration of the ulcerogenic agent to the control group clearly showed a mucosal damage characterized by multiple haemorrhage red bands of different sizes along the long axis of the glandular stomach as described in other studies
(Shay et www.selleckchem.com/products/pha-848125.html al., 1945; Yassir et al., 1999). When we compared the gastroprotective activity of compounds 5a, b, f, g we observed that AZD1480 in vitro pyrazolopyrimidopyrimidine 5b (100 mg/kg) demonstrated
the higher significant inhibition of gastric lesion (91, 42 %). Table 3 Effect of compounds 5a, b, f, g and the reference drug (cimetidine) on gastric ulcer induced by HCl/ethanol in rats Treatment Dose (mg/kg) Ulcer index (mm) Inhibition (%) Vehicle (2.5 ml/kg) (control) – 85 ± 2.82 – Compounds 5a 50 43.66 ± 2.58 48.63 100 30 ± 3.03* 64.7 5b 50 26.83 ± 3.43** 68.43 100 11.83 ± 0.75*** 86.08 5f 50 23.34 ± 2.9** 72.53 100 7.29 ± 0.3*** 91.42 5g 50 50.81 ± 3.2 40.22 100 40.65 ± 2.8 52.17 Cimétidine (reference drug) 100 22.07 ± 2.12** 74.03 Data expressed as mean ± SEM (n = 6) * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001 significantly different from control group In conclusion, we have synthesized a new series of 1,7-dihydropyrazolo oxyclozanide [3′,4′:4,5]pyrimido[1,6-a]pyrimidine 5a–i derivatives. The yield of the reaction seems to be significantly influenced by the nature of substituent. The highest yield is obtained for more hydrogen atom substituent. However, test (or experimental) compounds 5a, b, f showed that the methyl group increases the anti-inflammatory activity, contrary to ethyl group which decreases this activity. The same interpretation is found with gastroprotective effect. Indeed, our results on the gastroprotective effects of compounds 5a, b, f compared with cimetidine indicate that replacement of hydrogen by methyl reduces the gastrointestinal adverse effects.