29 http://www.selleckchem.com/products/ulixertinib-bvd-523-vrt752271.html increased TS was found in migraine patients for repeated mechanical and electrical noxious stimuli delivered at the periorbital area as well as at a remote body
site. Moreover, enhanced TS was demonstrated in association with more severe clinical parameters of disease and tended to normalize with time elapsed since last migraine attack.30 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Temporo-mandibular disorder. Submaximal effort tourniquet application as the conditioning stimulus was found non-efficient in reducing the clinical pain in these patients.31 These patients also responded with increased TS to repeated heat and to repeated mechanical noxious stimuli delivered on local and on remote from the painful body sites.32–35 Osteoarthritis. Patients with knee and with hip osteoarthritis demonstrated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical less efficient CPM as assessed by the effect of experimental or ongoing clinical pain on pressure pain thresholds.36–40 In addition, they demonstrated significant enhancement of TS to noxious pressure as well as to noxious heat stimuli at the site of inflammation and at
remote body regions.41 Whiplash. Results of a recent study raised evidence for impaired descending Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical pain inhibition in chronic whiplash patients such that Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the application of ischemic pain as conditioning stimulus did not diminish the perception of pressure pain stimuli.42 In line with deficient endogenous pain inhibition, widespread deep tissue hyperalgesia in chronic whiplash was associated with enhanced TS to pressure pain stimuli.43,44 Consequently, the term “pro-nociceptive” is commonly used to describe, at the clinical level, the Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical pain modulation profile of patients suffering from the idiopathic pain disorders. As can be seen from the aforementioned literature
overview, these patients can express less efficient CPM, enhanced TS, or both, at psychophysical and neurophysiological levels, as compared to healthy subjects (Figure 2). The exact interrelations between inhibitory and facilitatory 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase pain modulation systems in the clinical arena are still unclear. The reverse situation, an “anti-nociceptive” profile, is less known to us; most likely it represents an inherent or medication-induced resistance to pain. Likely examples would be the pain reduction in migraine patients in response to preventive treatment, and prevention of post-surgical pain by pre-emptive analgesic treatment. Figure 2 The Expression of Psychophysical Tests along the Pain Modulation Profile.