A.F.U., D.O-S., G.E.W., A.S-G., J.A.M., P.B-S, have acquired all data and interpreted the results, C.B-F. and C.R.C. have conceived and supervised this study. C.R.C. wrote the manuscript whose final version was approved by all authors. The authors declare that: a) the material has not been published
in whole or in part elsewhere, except in the form of an abstract or part of academic thesis; b) the work is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere; c) all authors have agreed upon the content and form of the manuscript; d) all relevant ethical safeguards have been met regarding animal experimentation. This work was supported by the Brazilian agencies: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico – CNPq; Coordenação selleck compound Olaparib chemical structure de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal do Ensino Superior – CAPES; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul – FAPERGS and Fundação de Amparo
à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro – FAPERJ. “
“The scorpion represents a deadly and serious public health problem in some countries due to the high incidence and/or severity of cases, and difficulty of management by public health services (Chippaux and Goyffon, 2008). In Brazil, approximately 10,000 human cases of scorpion sting are treated at hospital centers and recorded annually, and 50% of these cases occur in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo (Ribeiro et al., 2010 and Soares et al., 2002). Several species of scorpions are known to cause accidents which can lead to death in Brazil, most of them belonging to the genus Tityus ( Fialho et al.,
2011). The scorpion species Tityus serrulatus is the most prevalent (95%) and accounts for fatal stings, especially among children ( Ribeiro et al., 2010 and Soares et al., 2002). The main problems involved with use of immunoadjuvants for vaccines and serums, includes the toxicity and side effects of these formulations (Gupta and Siber, 1995). Aluminum hydroxide is the only immunoadjuvant licensed for human use. However, recent studies bring concerns about toxicity involved with the cumulative effect Rebamipide of aluminum (Gherardi et al., 2001, Petrovsky and Aguilar, 2004 and Zaharoff et al., 2007). Its secondary effects involved with subcutaneous administration include delayed hypersensitivity (Bergfors et al., 2003), severe granulomatous inflammation (Gupta and Siber, 1995 and Zaharoff et al., 2007) and pruritic subcutaneous nodules (Bergfors et al., 2003 and Thierry-Carstensen and Stellfeld, 2004). Thus, technologies or devices able to encapsulate and release recombinant or native proteins and able to induce the antibody production without side effects, represent a promising advance in the serum therapy. Some aspects are important to ensure the optimal efficacy of vaccines, particular attention is needed during their storage, distribution or handling.