For schistosomiasis it is firmly established that the probability

For schistosomiasis it is firmly established that the probability of infection increases with increasing proximity to an infectious water source which might explain this decline as households are located further away from water collection points on the northern shoreline.19 and 25 However, for malaria it could point

towards a density dependant effect where transmission is highest amongst people who live in closest proximity to one another.17 and 26 Having the position of the households allows investigations of other factors which might locally perturb the occurrence of infections, Gemcitabine molecular weight as well as control interventions that are set in place to diminish them.27 For example, 97.6% of our study cohort reported having recently accessed local health services. Interestingly, 23.6% of mothers reported having to walk for less than one hour with the remaining CH5424802 concentration study population having to walk for 1–4 hours. General access to medications was reasonable and across the village 76% reported having a bednet in their household, with just over half of these reporting it was insecticide treated. We are yet to plot distribution of these bednets across the village but their presence could potentially mitigate the transmission dynamics of anopheline mosquitoes within Bukoba.27 For hookworm, only a quarter of our cohort reported regularly wearing sandals, a well-known factor protecting against infection.6 It is clear that

knowing the location of households enables a new level of geospatial modelling and investigation of risk factors across an examined cohort. As we follow the infection dynamics of these three diseases through time it could also provide new spatial insights into longitudinal processes.28 Previous work has shown that in the context of host morbidity knowing the spatial co-occurrence of malaria and schistosomiasis is very important.13 and 14 The on-the-ground accuracy of these units was very good, equivalent to the Oregon 550t unit which is currently tenfold higher in price. However, the Oregon 550t is able to take ‘geostamped’ digital images which is particularly Clomifene useful

as an aide memoire for specific visual points of interest, for example, conditions at each household such as grass thatching or metal roofing, or at points along the way such as small water bodies or agricultural land use.20 Most importantly these images can also be uploaded onto GoogleEarth and geospatially aligned to further augment the visual information apparent from the background satellite image. A number of our GPS units malfunctioned in the field some of which resulted in the loss of captured data upon download (eight households). We speculate that the majority of the malfunctions were the result of insufficiently robust hardware for field conditions, often compromising the ability to synchronise with satellites due to humidity and/or water exposure, or due to poor quality software (a common error was the software failing to recognise the device).

As neoplasias quísticas, cada vez mais detetadas, têm significati

As neoplasias quísticas, cada vez mais detetadas, têm significativas diferenças no potencial de malignidade. A EE contribui de forma significativa para a sua diferenciação, de acordo com detalhes estruturais e com as características do fluido quístico obtido por PAAF-EE. No entanto, continua incerta a abordagem mais adequada dos pequenos quistos assintomáticos Galunisertib clinical trial e incidentalmente identificados. O desconhecimento da história natural de alguns subtipos de lesões quísticas condicionam a prática clínica e a consensualidade dos algoritmos de abordagem. A EE é mais sensível que a CPRM e igualmente sensível, mas mais segura que a CPRE na deteção de alterações subtis nas formas ligeiras de

pancreatite crónica, contribuindo find more de forma decisiva para o

diagnóstico precoce desta entidade, que é desafiante. Representa, além disso, a modalidade com maior acuidade no diagnóstico de microlitíase biliar e pode ter impacto na abordagem de doentes com pancreatite aguda idiopática, permitindo selecionar os doentes que beneficiarão da realização de CPRE. Nos casos de suspeita de PAI a EE pode acrescentar informação útil, ao demonstrar características morfológicas sugestivas e um padrão elastográfico e de captação de contraste típicos da doença, e deve ser utilizada para excluir malignidade por PAAF. As potencialidades da EE neste âmbito poderão vir a ser ampliadas com a aplicação da elastografia e os agentes de contraste. Atualmente, o maior desafio na área da EE pancreática é a expansão do seu potencial terapêutico, a ser abordado na parte III desta sequência de artigos de revisão. Os autores declaram não haver conflito de interesses. “
“O primeiro caso de esofagite eosinofílica (EE)

foi descrito em 1977, sendo que até 1990 a presença de infiltrado eosinofílico foi sinónimo de doença refluxo gastroesofágico (DRGE). Apenas em 1993 a EE foi considerada como entidade clínica distinta. De facto os sintomas de EE são semelhantes aos da DRGE, daí constituir uma importante dificuldade diagnóstica. No entanto, as características patológicas e os sintomas de EE não respondem ao tratamento de supressão ácida. A EE é uma condição clínica caracterizada por: sintomas gastrointestinais, principalmente esofágicos, Thymidylate synthase associados à presença de densa eosinofilia (≥ a 15 eosinófilos intraepiteliais/CGA) no material de biópsia, com hiperplasia do epitélio escamoso. A ausência de DRGE deve ser descartada por pHmetria ou falta de resposta clínica após tratamento prolongado com elevada dose (> 2 mg/kg/dia) de inibidor da bomba de protões1, 2, 3 and 4. A eosinofilia esofágica não é exclusiva da EE. A sua presença encontra‐se em inúmeras patologias como: DRGE, doenças infeciosas, doenças do tecido conjuntivo, resposta de hipersensibilidade a drogas, síndrome hipereosinofílica, doenças inflamatórias intestinais ou gastroenterite eosinofílica, entre outras.

For the seventh time in the history of this conference, Marine Po

For the seventh time in the history of this conference, Marine Pollution Bulletin has agreed to publish selected papers in this special issue following the normal refereeing procedures set by the journal. It is a pleasure to note that many papers in our previous six special issues have been amongst the “top downloaded” or “most cited” papers in Marine Pollution Bulletin. The Organizing Committee extends its sincere thanks to Marine Pollution Bulletin’s editors, and to Elsevier, for their continuing support, including offering the Elsevier prizes for the Best Student Oral and

Poster Papers. Finally, the strong support and generous sponsorship from various organizations, including the United Nations Development Program – Global Environmental Facilities, Partnerships in the Environmental Management for the Seas of East Asia and the Yellow Sea Large Marine Ecosystem of the United Nations, Office of Naval Research www.selleckchem.com/products/gsk1120212-jtp-74057.html Global, SETAC Asia – Pacific, ON1910 the Wei Lun Foundation, the K. C. Wong Education Foundation, the Ocean Park Conservation Foundation, The Conservancy Association, Kou Hing Hong Scientific

Supplies Ltd, AB Sciex and The Marine Biological Association of Hong Kong is gratefully recognized. On behalf of the organizing committee, we thank the participants at the 7th International Conference on Marine Pollution and Ecotoxicology. It is a pleasure to note that our conference goes from strength to strength, as was clearly shown by the presence in Hong Kong of more than 250 participants from 24 countries. The work reported here not only provides us with food for thought, but inspires us to continue our earnest pursuit of environmental sustainability. “
“Global warming influences not only organisms on land but also in the sea. It seems that increase in water temperature may impact spatial distributions of sessile organisms rather than mobile ones because they cannot move after

settlement. In the shallow coastal waters, there are several important ecosystems such as corals, seaweed beds and seagrass beds growing on the bottom. For example, mass coral bleaching has occurred in association with episodes of elevated sea temperatures and resulted in significant losses of live coral in many parts of the world (Hoegh-Guldberg, 1999). These ecosystems form Avelestat (AZD9668) indispensable habitats for many marine organisms. Thus it is necessary to explore the global warming influences on these ecosystems. Impacts of global warming on coral reefs are well examined (e.g. Pandolfi et al., 2011). On the other hand, there are not many studies on seaweed forests, which are very important coastal ecosystem as a primary producer ( Mann, 1982). On rocky coasts along the northwestern Pacific, seaweeds belonging to Sargassum species produce such an important ecosystem forming a luxuriant forest in spring and a scanty one in summer ( Komatsu et al.

There was a substantial component of tremor with intention By se

There was a substantial component of tremor with intention. By self-report, the tremor was similar to that prior to thalamotomy,

being worse on moving the arm to eat and drink. An MRI within a month of the ictus (shown in Fig. 5) demonstrated a completed stroke involving the right cerebellar hemisphere. Firing rates in thalamic nuclei Vim and Vop for patient 4 are compared to patients with cerebellar tremor, postural ET and controls with pain in Section 2.1.1. There was no difference in the firing rates, or spike×EMG coherence or phase from this patient ON-01910 clinical trial and the rest of the intention ET group (Mann–Whitney U test, z=1.22, P>0.2 for all comparisons). We have now tested the hypothesis that thalamic neuronal and EMG activities during intention ET are similar to those of cerebellar tremor. The results show that this website intention ET

was similar to cerebellar tremor in multiple measures of tremor related activity while intention ET was apparently different from postural ET in multiple measures. Overall, the characteristics of intention ET are consistent with a mechanism similar to that of cerebellar tremor but different from that of postural ET (Hua and Lenz, 2005, Lenz et al., 2002 and Vilis and Hore, 1980). This mechanism may be based upon disruption of cerebellar function, as in cerebellar tremor. Specifically, intention ET versus postural ET demonstrated lower firing rates, tuclazepam lower SNR, and smaller phase lead of spike×EMG, all of which are consistent with the deafferentation of the thalamus by a cerebellar lesion, as shown in monkey studies (Lenz et al., 2002, Vilis and Hore, 1977 and Vilis and Hore, 1980). Postural ET had as many differences from intention ET as from cerebellar tremor, which suggests that postural ET is not due to cerebellar disruption. In addition, the higher firing rates, SNR, and phase lead of postural ET may result from excitatory

oscillatory input to the thalamus, consistent with a pacemaker in the olive (Lamarre, 1995 and Llinas, 1984). The cerebellar lesion occurring in patient 4 with intention ET is a critical test of whether intention ET is the result of cerebellar disruption or a cerebellar pacemaker. The lesion should increase tremor due to a cerebellar disruption but decrease tremor due to a pacemaker in the cerebellum and related structures. Patient 4 with intention ET had a cerebellar stroke (Table 1, Fig. 5), which increased his intention tremor. In light of this case, the physiological differences described above strongly suggest that intention ET is the result of disruption of the cerebellum. The frequency of thalamic activity during cerebellar tremor in this series is consistent with the accepted frequency range for cerebellar tremor in the literature (Deuschl et al., 1998 and Elble and Deuschl, 2011).

Considering that the HCV-major depression comorbidity remains und

Considering that the HCV-major depression comorbidity remains under-diagnosed (Batista-Neves et al., 2008) and affects both the quality of life and the course of the somatic illnesses (Batista-Neves et al., 2009), many authors have suggested systematically treating IFN-α-induced depression prophylactically with antidepressants (Raison et al., 2007, Musselman et al., 2001, Schaefer et al., 2005, Kraus et al., 2005, Gleason et al., 2007 and Morasco et al., 2007). A recent review of six

clinical trials by our group did not support this strategy (Galvão-de Almeida et al., 2010a and Galvão-de Almeida et al., Protein Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor 2010b). Thus, risk factors for depression during IFN-α treatment in HCV individuals need to be identified. Recent studies (Bull et al., 2009, Lotrich et al., 2009 and Pierucci-Lagha et al., 2010) have suggested that genetic evaluation may be informative for screening “at-risk” HCV patients and may produce more successful individualized preventive and therapeutic approaches. Considering the significant role played by IDO in the regulation of serotonin levels during IFN-α treatment and its possible influence on IFN-α-induced depression, variation in IDO gene may influence risk of developing treatment-induced depression. To test find more this

hypothesis, we conducted an association study with three IDO functional polymorphisms and the diagnosis of major depression during the course of IFN-α plus RBV therapy in HCV patients. A cross-sectional study was performed evaluating the association of three functional polymorphisms in IDO gene and next the diagnosis of IFN-α-related depression in HCV patients who had completed IFN-α

plus RBV therapy. The sample comprised HCV patients recruited between February 2008 and March 2010 from the outpatient of the Hepatology clinics of the Teaching Hospital, Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Bahia, Brazil, and the São Paulo Hospital, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil. Initially, medical charts were screened in order to select potential subjects. Sequentially, the patients that had fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria were invited, personally during the regular medical appointments or by phone, to participate. Inclusion criteria included: 1. Age between 18 and 65; 2. Diagnosis of chronic hepatitis C with anti-HCV positive by ELISA III, and confirmed by qualitative determination of HCV RNA; 3. Treatment with conventional or pegylated IFN-α plus RBV for at least 3 months (if discontinued due to lack of efficacy); 4. Therapy termination at least 1 month prior to evaluation. Exclusion criteria were: 1. Co-infections (hepatitis B virus- HBV; human immunodeficiency virus- HIV; human T lymphotropic virus- HTLV); 2. Decompensated liver disease (Child-Pugh B or C); 3.

Based on our own results and previous

work, we posit that

Based on our own results and previous

work, we posit that a decrease in MBP expression and/or an increase in MAG expression might contribute to impaired motor BMS-777607 manufacturer function and neuronal regeneration in mTBI patients. From these preliminary studies, we also hypothesize that M2 proteomics can reveal subtler changes in CSP expression than those observed herein, such as those reflecting long-term secondary effects on motor impairment and unit integrity, as well as underlying molecular mechanisms, at 180 days post-injury and beyond. For these reasons and others, M2 proteomics is expected to become increasingly important to accurately predict clinical outcome and improve risk group stratification and therapy for mTBI patients. We acknowledge the RCMI and RTRN grants from the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities (G12MD007591 and U54MD008149, respectively) for funding (Haskins WE). This research was funded in part by an independent National Research Service Award, National Institute for Neurological Diseases and Stroke (1F31NS080508-01; Evans TM) and the Hartford

Foundation/American Federation for Aging Research Scholars in Geriatric Medicine Program (Jaramillo CA). We would also like to acknowledge the support of the Sam and Ann Barshop institute for Longevity and Aging Studies. Lastly, we thank the dedicated patients, physicians Selleckchem Temsirolimus and researchers in the TBI community for their strong support of protein biomarker research for

TBI. The authors have no conflicts of interest to report. “
“As Tyrosine-protein kinase BLK we celebrate the start of 2013, I am pleased to announce the first publications in our newly launched journal, Translational Proteomics. This has been made possible thanks to Elsevier’s strong support and the enthusiastic participation of the Journal’s Associate Editors and Editorial Board members. Over the years, the difficulties of transferring fundamental proteomics discoveries to clinical applications have caused a lot of frustration to proteomics researchers and clinicians alike, in both academia and industry. One of the reasons for this barrier is the lack of understanding between basic scientists and physicians: they have been trained using opposing concepts. Whilst the former want to control and understand all variables, the latter need rapid actions on patients, rather than absolute certainties. Both disciplines are difficult to condense into a single scientist and therefore interdisciplinary associations need to be fostered. Translational research has often been viewed as a two-way street: bedside to bench, and back to bedside.

The recombinant protein was maintained at −80 °C and diluted in s

The recombinant protein was maintained at −80 °C and diluted in sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Polyoma middle T oncogene-transformed mouse endothelioma cells derived from thymus (t-End) (Willians et al., 1988) were cultured in RPMI 1640 supplemented with PI3K inhibitor 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in a 5% CO2, humidified atmosphere, at 37 °C. Cells were used in the 3rd passage. t-End cells were used to carry out the in vivo and in vitro studies in mice, and the expression of PECAM-1 was determined before the beginning of assays, which provided data about the responsiveness of the cell strain to be employed.

The dorsal skinfold chamber was implanted in male Swiss mice under anesthesia, as previously described by Harder et al. (2004). Amblyomin-X (1, 10 or 100 ng/10 μl) or PBS was topically applied and in sequence VEGF-A (10 ng/10 μl) or PBS (10 μl) was also locally applied. This treatment schedule was carried out on the 3rd, 5th and 7th days after chamber implantation. Animals were immobilized in a polycarbonate tube and the microcirculatory network in the windows was digitized using intravital microscopy equipment (Carl Zeiss, Germany) and photographed using a digital camera (Sony–Cyber-Shot – 7.2 Mega Pixels/Optical

3X, Japan). The images obtained before (day 3) and after the treatments (day 9) were quantified according to Dellian et al. (1996). Results were expressed as percentage of vessels in comparison to the control Screening Library chemical structure group of animals (PBS-treated animals). Fertilized chicken eggs were incubated (65% humidity, 37 °C), and on 11th day of incubation, a sterile cellulose disc (2 mm) was placed on the CAM and Ringer solution (10 μl, control), Amblyomin-X (100 ng/10 μl) with or without VEGF-A (0.25 ng/10 μl) was subsequently applied topically. Treatments were daily

until the 14th day. The discs were removed and photographed with a digital camera coupled to a magnifying glass (Nikon, magnification 1×). Quantification of CAM vascular network was assessed by counting the number of vessels present on the disc area. Results were expressed as percentage of vessels in comparison to control membranes, treated with Ringer GABA Receptor solution. All experiments were conducted with a FACS Canto Flow Cytometer (Becton Dickinson, Mountain View, CA, USA) and analyzed using the Flow Jo (version 9.1) software. Data from 10.000 cells were obtained and only the morphologically viable endothelial cells were considered in the analysis. t-End confluent cells were incubated with PBS or Amblyomin-X (100 ng/ml) in medium supplemented with 10 or 1% BSA. Afterwards at 72 h, cells were harvested and necrosis and apoptosis were measured by adding propidium iodide (PI) or annexin-V, respectively. Cell proliferation was measured in adherent t-End cells labeled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

P07015) and the Bio-Oriented Technology Research Advancement Inst

P07015) and the Bio-Oriented Technology Research Advancement Institution. We thank Dr. Lynn Kimsey and Dr. Steve Heydon of the Bohart Museum of Entomology (USA), Dr. Shuichiro Tomita, Dr. Natsuo Komoto, and Dr. Kenji Yukuhiro of the National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences (Japan), and Adam Fink of the Oakland Zoo (USA) for access to insect specimens. “
“The authors regret that a significance asterisk was mistakenly added to Fig. 2 on plot B (A. antarcticus, summer acclimatised) and that significance asterisks were accidentally missed out from Fig. 3 in the first version

of the paper. These have now been corrected. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. “
“All living organisms

use many energy-consuming processes to stay alive and reproduce. On the one hand, metabolic rates vary with NLG919 changes of environmental and physiological conditions; on the other hand, metabolic rates pose limits to physiological changes and environmental interactions. In this way, metabolic rates have important ecological and evolutionary consequences (Garland HA-1077 price and Carter, 1994 and Chown, 2001), and have often been evoked in discussions about physiological ecology and evolutionary physiology (Reinhold, 1999). Spiders are typically sit-and-wait foragers remaining motionless most of the time, a condition which stresses the importance of the resting metabolic rate in their life

cycle. Food availability limits and shapes the ecology and behavior of spiders (Wise, 1993), affecting several life history traits such as reproduction (Eberhard, 1979), web building (Pasquet et al., 1994 and Sandoval, 1994), sociality (Rypstra, 1985 and Kim, 2000) and growth (Vollrath, 1985). Spiders may have evolved adaptations to unpredictable and low Edoxaban prey availability (Greenstone and Bennett, 1980), a condition that would perfectly match their alleged low resting metabolic rates (Anderson, 1970). However, Lighton et al. (2001) argued that spiders actually have a metabolism that is very similar to that of other land-arthropods. Overall, it was shown that the arthropod resting metabolic rate could be considered extremely conservative, and that a general allometric rule between body mass and resting metabolic rate could be modeled for all land arthropods, except for tarantulas (Shillington, 2005), scorpions and ticks (Lighton et al., 2001). One important source of effects on energetic metabolism is the execution of energetically costly behaviors (Reinhold, 1999), an aspect particularly neglected in the study of spider physiology. Despite the fact that spiders are sit-and-wait foragers, a typical economic foraging strategy as mentioned above, they are able to exhibit some behaviors with important impacts in their daily energetic budget (Watson and Lighton, 1994).

Na Europa, esta percentagem varia entre 40‐70%25 and 29 Estes da

Na Europa, esta percentagem varia entre 40‐70%25 and 29. Estes dados são concordantes com os obtidos GW-572016 purchase no painel de peritos, cujas estimativas apontam para que 50% dos casos de morte por CHC em Portugal sejam devidos ao VHC. A grande maioria

dos casos de CHC (80%) ocorre em doentes cirróticos, principalmente naqueles com fibrose avançada30. O risco de desenvolvimento de CHC nestes doentes é de 1‐5%/ano e as estimativas do risco global de CHC a 5 anos situam‐se entre 7‐30%26, 31 and 32. O risco de mortalidade no primeiro ano após o diagnóstico de CHC é de 33%27. As terapêuticas atualmente disponíveis parecem ter impacto modesto na taxa de mortalidade do CHC32, pelo que se torna crucial evitar o desenvolvimento desta complicação. O principal objetivo da terapêutica do VHC é a cura ou erradicação da infeção após cessação do tratamento, avaliada na prática clínica através da resposta virológica mantida (RVM) ao tratamento, isto é, nível indetetável de RNA‐VHC (< 50 UI/ml) no sangue 24 semanas após o final do tratamento27. A RVM encontra‐se normalmente associada à resolução da doença hepática em doentes sem cirrose27 e a uma diminuição

muito significativa do risco de descompensação hepática, CHC e morte por doença hepática em doentes cirróticos, existindo mesmo em alguns casos reversão da cirrose33, 34, 35, 36 and 37. A terapêutica dupla com Pictilisib interferão‐alfa peguilado (Peg‐IFN) e RBV é a terapêutica atualmente aprovada em Portugal para a infeção crónica pelo VHC22 and 27. Presentemente encontram‐se disponíveis no mercado 2 formulações de Peg‐IFN (2a e 2b). A taxa global de RVM nos doentes monoinfetados tratados com terapêutica dupla é de 50‐60%, sendo superior nos doentes portadores de G3/G4 (65‐82%) e inferior nos doentes portadores de G1 (40‐54%). Nos doentes coinfetados (VIH/VHC) estas taxas são inferiores: 50% nos doentes portadores de G3/G4 e 20% nos de G127, 30 and 35. O facto de

46‐60% dos doentes portadores de G1 não atingirem a RVM revela a existência de uma importante lacuna terapêutica, PLEK2 recentemente colmatada pelos inibidores da protease do VHC, boceprevir e telaprevir, especificamente desenvolvidos para o tratamento de doentes com hepatite C crónica portadores de G1, em combinação com o Peg‐IFN e RBV22. Nos doentes portadores de G1 sem tratamento prévio, o ganho de eficácia com a terapêutica tripla com boceprevir ou telaprevir oscilará entre os 20‐30%, comparativamente à utilização da terapêutica dupla, verificando‐se assim um aumento da taxa de RVM para cerca de 60‐70%38 and 39. À data de elaboração deste estudo, o boceprevir e o telaprevir não são de livre aquisição pelo Sistema Nacional de Saúde (SNS) e a sua cedência nos hospitais públicos é apenas possível mediante a concessão de uma autorização de utilização especial pelo INFARMED.

Color-singleton presence and color were determined per trial, suc

Color-singleton presence and color were determined per trial, such that each trial had a 75% chance of including a color singleton, and, in singleton present trials, there was a 50% likelihood that the color singleton would be red and a 50% likelihood it would be green. The visual search array was configured such that two of the six possible stimulus positions were located on the vertical meridian of the display. In each trial the target and salient distractor positions were randomly selected with the sole confine Transmembrane Transproters inhibitor that these stimuli be presented to different positions.

The search displays were presented on a CRT monitor located 60 cm. away from the participant’s eyes. Each trial began with presentation of fixation point for a random duration of 400 to 1400 ms. This was followed by presentation of the search array, which remained on the screen until 100 ms Selleck Selumetinib after response was made (when the next trial began). Participants completed 60 blocks of 30 trials, for a total of 1800 trials. They were instructed to respond as quickly as possible while maintaining an average accuracy of 90% or better, and feedback regarding accuracy and reaction time was provided at the end of each block. They were also instructed to maintain eye fixation throughout the experiment and told that eye movements were being monitored. Prior to beginning the

experiment, each participant completed at least one practice block. EEG and electrooculogram (EOG) were recorded from 134 sintered-AG/AgCl electrodes using the Biosemi ActiveTwo system (Biosemi, Amsterdam, the Netherlands). Horizontal EOG was recorded from electrodes located 1 cm. lateral to the external canthi and vertical EOG was recorded from two electrodes located 2 cm. above and below the right MTMR9 eye socket. Electrophysiological signals were digitized at 1024 Hz and resampled offline to 250 Hz. The data were high-pass filtered by convolving each channel with a Hamming-windowed finite

impulse response (FIR) function with half-amplitude attenuation at ~ 0.49 Hz and a 6 dB transition bandwidth of ~ 0.1 Hz, and low-pass filtered with a similar function that resulted in half-amplitude attenuation at 40 Hz and a 6 dB transition bandwidth of 8 Hz. ERP analysis was conducted using a combination of custom scripts for Matlab (Mathworks, Natick, MA) and the EEGLAB toolbox (Delorme and Makeig, 2004). Analysis began with the computation of independent components using the logistic infomax independent component analysis (ICA) algorithm (Bell and Sejnowski, 1995). The primary component associated with eye movements was identified and used to reject epochs in which participants moved their eyes, which resulted in the average rejection of 8.5% of total trials per subject (±3.6% SD). Following this all components associated with blinks, line noise, and other sources of artifact were removed from the data.