The relationship between AD and survival was examined using survival analysis methods, including the log rank test. Results During the study period, there were 1,607 admission episodes involving 1,117 individuals, of whom 693 (62%) were ineligible, 239 (21.4%)
declined and 185 (16.6%) were recruited. There were no significant demographic differences between participants and those who declined (see Table Table11). Table 1 Demographic details of participants and those who declined participation Completion of individual components of Ewing’s battery HR response to deep breathing The HR data of 14/185 (7.6%) participants were invalidated by arrhythmia. A further nine participants were unable to complete three consecutive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical breaths according to the study protocol, due to inattention and/or difficulty understanding and retaining information. The median SOMCT error score in those who completed the test was 2 compared with 6.5 (p = 0.015) in those who did not complete it. HR response to Apoptosis Compound Library active stand The HR data of 14/185 (7.6%) participants were invalidated Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical by arrhythmia and one other by excessive artefact at the time of standing. BP response to active stand The BP data of 42/185 (22.7%) participants was invalidated due to failure to obtain a good quality trace or due to artefact; most commonly due to external pressure on the finger cuff at the time of the stand. HR response to Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical valsalva manoeuvre Eighty-three (45%) participants
were unable to complete the valsalva manoeuvre. We conducted Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical analyses to explore our post-hoc hypothesis
that the high prevalence of non-completion of the valsalva manoeuvre was due to the phenotypic characteristics of our study population. We observed that patients who had features consistent with the geriatric syndrome of frailty  were less likely to be able to complete the valsalva manoeuvre. See Table Table22 for results. In view of the high prevalence of dyspnoea in advanced cancer we included the ESAS item on severity of shortness of breath in our analysis, but found that this was not associated with ability to complete the valsalva Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical manoeuvre. Table 2 Features of participants according to whether they were able to complete the valsalva manoeuvre Prevalence of autonomic dysfunction and associated factors Due to the high levels of missing data pertaining to the HR response to valsalva manoeuvre and BP response to active stand, it was only possible to accurately Cediranib (AZD2171) define autonomic function, using Ewing’s classification (normal, definite, severe or atypical), for 91/185 (49.2%) participants. See Figure Figure1.1. By collapsing the Ewing’s classification into a binary classification of definite/severe versus other, it was possible to accurately classify 138/185 (74.6%) participants as having either normal, early or atypical, (other category) versus definite or severe AD. Of 138 patients 110 (80%) had definite or severe AD. Having definite/severe AD was associated with poor performance status (χ2 for trend = 8.2, p = 0.